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Immunohistochemistry results in lung sections from two fatal cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The findings were condensed oedematous pulmonary parenchyma with alveolar fibrinous exudate and infiltrates of mononuclear cells (a), whereof a vast majority were CD8+ T lymphocytes (b), and many were holding granules containing granzyme B (c) and T cell restricted antigen-1, TIA-1 (d); this immunophenotype is characteristic of activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In contrast, CD4+ helper T lymphocytes (e) were uncommon. Viral antigen was detected in capillary vascular endothelium (f) and in mononuclear cells, here represented by a monocyte (f; inset), using Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid protein monoclonal antibody (A1C5, Progen Biotechnik GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany). For viral antigen, lung samples from two non-hantavirus patients were used as negative controls (data not shown). Panels (Patient 1 in a–e; original magnification, x 400; and Patient 3 in f; original magnification, x 600) display lung sections from paraffin embedded material. Staining was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (a), and immunoperoxidase technique (b–f)
Many mononuclear cells were expressing cytotoxic markers granzyme B
and T cell restricted intracellular antigen-1, TIA-1 (Fig. 2).
The organs were examined for viral antigen, which was found in the
vascular endothelium and in mononuclear cells (Fig. 2)..
Rasmuson, J.; Andersson, C.; Norrman, E.; Haney, M.; Evander, M.; Ahlm, C.Journal: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Issue 5DOI: 10.1007/s10096-010-1141-6Published: 2011-04-12Institution(s):
Hantaviruses have previously been recognised to cause two separate syndromes: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia, and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Americas. However, increasing evidence suggests that this dichotomy is no longer fruitful when recognising human hantavirus disease and understanding the pathogenesis. Herein are presented three cases of severe European Puumala hantavirus infection that meet the HPS case definition. The clinical and pathological findings were similar to those found in American hantavirus patients. Consequently, hantavirus infection should be considered as a cause of acute respiratory distress in all endemic areas worldwide.
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