An oscillogram and spectrogram representing a typical male black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) song from a dawn chorus recording. Song structural measures included in our analysis were a relative fee loudness (dB re maximum amplitude for the song), b song length (s), c fee length (% of song), d glissando ratio and e interval ratio. The absolute frequency of songs was calculated as the frequency of the start of the bee note (*)
We used five fine-structural song features in our analysis
(Fig. 1 ).
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