Apron of coalescing alluvial fans between mountain range (top) and cultivated valley plain (bottom), near Quetta, Baluchistan. The village is positioned at the distal margin of a fan, avoiding flood-prone areas in higher sectors and in the zone of concentrated flow that passes immediately to the left of the village. The arrows indicate linear series of shafts connecting man-made tunnels, termed
, which channel water underground from natural aquifers in upper parts of the fans to settlements and irrigated fields downslope (photo: Surveyor General of Pakistan).
3 , 4 , and 5 ).
Farmers taking water from one of the Karey shafts Karez Shafts
shown in Figure 4 .
However, further examples to illustrate the primary importance of
applied geomorphology in manipulating surficial water systems
include gully control ( Jepson, 1973 ), irrigation ( Stallings,
1957 ; Schwab et al., 1966 ; Askochensky, 1973 ; Withers and
Vipond, 1974 ; Currey, 1977 ), ground-water extraction ( Figs.
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