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Results of multi-level models of school proximity to major roadways
Model Outcome Variable
Effect Estimate (95% CI)b
School within 75 m of a highway or major road (binary)
City (Census Subdivision)
1.26 (0.71, 2.24)
Neighborhood (Census Tract)
1.07 (1.00, 1.16)
Median Household Income
0.81 (0.65, 1.00)
% of Population Without HS Diploma
0.95 (0.77, 1.18)
School within 200 m of a highway or major road (binary)
1.34 (0.75, 2.38)
1.19 (1.09, 1.29)
0.74 (0.63, 0.89)
1.08 (0.91, 1.28)
Distance from school to the nearest highway or major road (m, continuous)
-51.6 (-102, -1.3)
-10.3 (-17.0, -3.6)
47.1 (32.8, 61.3)
4.7 (-11.8, 21.2)
aContrasts roughly correspond to interquartile ranges (see Table 1) to allow for comparisons of effect sizes across variables.
bFor the binary outcome models the effect estimates are the odds ratios per variable contrast. For the continuous model the effect estimates are the changes in average school distance to the nearest highway or major road (in meters) per variable contrast.
When modeling schools' proximities to major roads as a binary
variable (< 75 m or ≥ 75 m) we found that both higher
neighborhood dwelling density (OR per 1,000
dwellings/km2 increase: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16) and
lower neighborhood median income (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81;
95% CI: 0.65, 1.00) were associated with closer school proximity to
the nearest major road (Table 2).
Similar results were observed when schools were categorized as <
200 m or 200 m, and when school proximity was modeled as a
continuous variable (Table 2).
Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; Allen, Ryan WJournal: International Journal of Health Geographics
Issue 1DOI: 10.1186/1476-072X-10-68Published: 2011-12-01Institution(s):
Simon Fraser University, The University of British Columbia
This table is from the article titled "Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas"
(from International Journal of Health Geographics) which is copyrighted by Amram et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. For more information on the
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