Crystal structures of three representative siderophores: enterobactin, ferrichrome and staphyloferrin A are depicted without (left side) and with Fe3+ bound (right side). Ferrichrome (a and b), a hydroxamate type siderophore, is produced by the fungus Ustilago sphaerogena. Enterobactin (c and d), a catecholate-type siderophore, is produced by numerous Gram-negative bacteria including E. coli. Staphyloferrin A (e and f), an α-hydroxy carboxylate type siderophore is produced by Staphylococcus aureus
They often have a peptidic backbone, with modified amino acid side
chains creating the iron-coordinating ligands, such as the
catecholate, hydroxamate and hydroxy-carboxylate groups (see
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