Sample force data. Total foot force direction changes while the muscular component direction is nearly constant. The consistent linearity and direction of the force traces is illustrated for a typical set of push efforts to the 10 force target levels (a). A single force trace (dots) to the 650-N target shows the change in direction of the total foot force vector (dashed vectors). The line to the left of the data represents the characteristic direction of the force trace determined with principal component analysis (b). The stick figure is shown for general reference only and should not be used to estimate joint torques because the force axes are not isometric (Fx scale was increased for clarity)
Representative foot force data for the ten pushes at a single pedal
position is shown in Fig. 3 .
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