Thin-section images of the Padeha Formation (members 2 and 3) facies. a Conglomerate facies with abundant volcanic lithics (V), alluvial fan association (sample KP4). b Same facies with sedimentary siltstone (Sil.), sandstone (San.) and mudstone (M) lithics (sample KP5). c Volcanic-arenite facies with abundant volcanic lithics, alluvial fan association (sample TP5). d Siltstone facies with angular quartz grains and red matrix, alluvial fan association (sample KP2). e Volcanic facies, basalt with plagioclase (PL) and microlitic texture, volcanic facies in alluvial fan association (sample KP7). f Quartz-arenite facies with good sorting and volcanic quartz grains, distal fan association (sample KP17). g Stained thin section of arkose facies with clear quartz (Q) and dirty yellow k-feldspar grains (indicated by arrows), distal fan association (sample KP18). h Quartz-wacke facies with bioturbation (Bio.), distal fan association (sample TP8). i Stained thin section of feldspathic-wacke facies with clear quartz and dirty yellow k-feldspar grains, distal fan association (sample KP15). j Paleosol or red calcrete facies with envelope of calcite crystals around each quartz grain, distal fan association (sample KP24). k Flow tuff facies with volcanic quartz (Q), feldspars (F), and flow groundmass (arrows indicate flow direction), volcaniclastic facies in lacustrine/palustrine association (sample KP37). l Chert-arenite facies with chert (Ch), volcanic (V) lithics and plagioclase (PL), lacustrine/palustrine association (sample MP24). m Shale-arenite facies with abundant shale lithics (Sh), lacustrine/palustrine association (sample KP87). n Quartz-wacke facies, lacustrine/palustrine association (sample KP35). o Feldspathic-wacke facies with volcanic quartz grains and altered feldspars (F), lacustrine/palustrine association (sample KP42)
This facies is recognized in the Khoshyeylagh and Tilabad
sections and dominated by granule to boulder-sized volcanic lithics
and its cement is chalcedony or ferroan in composition
In addition to volcanic grains, some of the thin sections contain
abundant sedimentary lithics such as siltstones, sandstones, and
mudstones, and cements are characterized by coarse mosaics of
calcite (Fig. 6b).
Other grains such as quartz are very rare (Fig. 6c).
Its matrix is ferroan and red colored (Fig. 6d).
This facies contains some volcanic rocks such as green tuffs and
dark green basalts to andesites (Fig. 6e) and is intercalated
in between the above-mentioned facies.
There are some stable heavy minerals, mainly zircon and rarely
tourmaline and also some cherts and microcline (Fig. 6f).
Sorting is moderate to well (Fig. 6g).
Bioturbation is a common feature in most of the samples
Quartz grains mainly have a volcanic origin (Fig. 6i).
This facies contains features such as floating of grains in a dense
red micritic matrix, envelopes of coarser calcite crystals around
each quartz grain, circumgranular cracks, and spar-filled veins
Also, some of the feldspars are replaced by chert (Fig. 6k).
Sorting is moderate to weak (Fig. 6l).
Shale-arenite facies is composed of abundance shale lithics,
altered feldspar, and chert grains (Fig. 6m).
Sorting is very well to well (Fig. 6n).
Sorting is weak (Fig. 6o).
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