Photo of flow-top breccia exposed close to Kurundwad (Fig. ). White amygdales are visible, while individual fragments and horizontal joints filled with calcium carbonate have been marked for clarity. b Central zone (~25 m ) of a thick flow exposed in a quarry close to Kurundwad (Fig. ). Note the relatively well-developed columnar jointing and the considerable extent of the flow in this exposure. c Basal zone of a flow exposed in the Dhadgaon area (Fig. ). Note the smooth nature of the base. X refers to a zone of closely spaced joints, while Y indicates dark glassy bands
Although some flows do display preserved crusts, many are
characterized by reddened (oxidized), rubbly tops (Fig. 12 a)
or flow-top breccia, as observed around Kurundwad and Satara.
The flow-top breccia is usually constituted of irregular, highly
vesicular/amygdaloidal fragments in a matrix of fine, often glassy
material (Fig. 12 a) and ranges from 0.85 to 5.00 m
This is usually the thickest part of the flow (Fig. 12 b); it
is often well jointed and displays columnar jointing (sometimes
This zone has a variable thickness and often shows close spaced
jointing and a bluish-black sheen as seen in (Fig. 12 c).
It is worth noting that no evidence of scouring of the base has
been observed in any of the flows (e.g., Fig. 12 c)..
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