SEM images of (a) feldspar blocks surrounded by spongy alteration products; (b) dissolved feldspar blocks; (c) spongy corn-flake-type smectite-illite, developed mainly on and between dissolved and irregular feldspar grains; (d) development of authigenic smectite-illite in dissolution voids; (e) development of authigenic smectite flex in microfractures; (f) sub-parallel thick plates developed by degradation of feldspar and partly surrounded by alteration products; (g) development of irregular kaolinite plates sub-parallel to the veins and cracks axes; (h) growth of interwoven, long mordenite fibers on subrounded aggregates, representing microorganisms; (i) development of interwoven, long mordenite fibers between microfracture walls; (j) calcified filaments in soil profiles; (k) oriented flexible continuous layers resembling biotite; (l) needle-type chrysotile crystals in the concrete buildings
Development of alteration products on skeletal remnants of feldspar
and in dissolved cavities of feldspar layers was observed
(Fig. 4 a, b).
Generally, development of spongy and corn-flakes structures of
smectite in dissolution voids and micro fractures of volcanic
materials was determined (Fig. 4 c–e).
Some of these blocks are highly degradated and form
subparallel-layered structures along the c-axis of the crystal, and
further alteration result in development of subparallel and
irregular kaolinite plates (Fig. 4 f, g).
The occurrence of subrounded aggregates having grain sizes between
2 and 20 μm in diameter on the altered surface possibly
represents microorganisms (Fig. 4 h), based on their
morphologies and compositions of mainly C obtained by EDX analyses.
These subrounded aggregates are covered by spongy materials, and
are individual and interwoven of very thin fibers of mordenite, in
places (Fig. 4 h).
Furthermore, some of these fibers are developed in the micro
fracture and dissolution void of the volcanic materials (Fig.
Highly altered volcanic units (soil) have approximately 15%
porosities and enclose filamentous structures (Fig. 4 j).
Moreover, oriented flexible continuous layers were observed in the
ZG13 sample, possibly resembling the occurrence of flakes of
biotite, which is compacted between the volcano-sedimentary grains
(Fig. 4 k)..
It is found that some of the concrete buildings in the residential
areas of Gökçeler Village are dominated by needle-type crystals
(0.2 × 5 μm), which were determined as chrysotile
(Fig. 4 l), based on petrographical, XRD, and EDX analyses..
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