Spatial and temporal scales of variability of the atmospheric constituents (Modified from Seinfeld and Pandis 2006)
Processes at the micro-scale are connected with pollen release
and take place within a few metres from the plants
Local-scale processes include initial dispersion of grains that
happen within the nearest kilometre from the source
Regional and meso-scales are considered as synonyms and cover
the processes responsible for the dispersion and removal of the
bulk of pollen grains – at distances of up to a hundred
The hierarchy of the scales related to long-range transport
consists of synoptic, continental, and global scales, which include
processes of up to 1,000–2,000 km, up to 5,000 km, and over 5,000
5.1 following their characteristic lifetimes.
5.1 where the pollen-related processes are delineated by a separate
5.1) – from micro-scale up to continental.
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